Founded inFamily Research Council is a nonprofit research and educational organization dedicated to articulating and advancing a family-centered philosophy of public life. In addition to providing policy research and analysis for the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government, FRC seeks to inform the news media, the academic community, business leaders, and the general public about family issues that affect the nation from a biblical worldview.
Abortion is unlike any other issue debated today. Millions of American women have aborted a child, and the pain, loss, and emotional need to justify what was done, both on the part of the mother and on the part of her loved ones, is strong and deep. This means that, in any debate, you may face an invisible thumb on the scale so that even the best logic will fail to persuade. What follows, therefore, are the best arguments from science, the law, and women's rights to advance the pro-life case against abortion.
Keyword Search. Religion and Society. Read the Full Publication.Foundations play a huge role in the world of philanthropy. There are thousands of foundations in the US and, inthey gave nearly 54 billion dollars to the charitable sector. In the U. Specifically, Gilded Age businessmen such as John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie decided, after accumulating massive fortunes, to give away much of their money.
Rockefeller notably built the University of Chicago and founded the still influential Rockefeller Foundation. Carnegie built libraries and museums and then put his remaining fortune into the Carnegie Foundation.
Later, Frederick Goffa Cleveland banker, created a twist on the classic foundation and founded a community foundation. Foundations may have had a formal air when the first ones were founded.
But today, foundations take part in American life and sometimes their founders rank among the best-known celebrities. Several types of foundations flourish in today's charitable community, creating charitable giving on a massive scale.
Here is a brief explanation of foundations as we find them today. A private foundation sometimes called independent foundation is a nongovernmental, nonprofit organization usually funded from a single source, such as an individual, family or corporation. It is established to aid social, educational, religious or other charitable activities, primarily through grantmaking.
Private foundations are organized either as a nonprofit corporation or as a charitable trust. There are two subgroups of private foundations:. These are the foundations that we are most familiar with and to whom charities send their grant applications. Grant-making foundations must distribute a certain percentage of the value of their endowment each year to other organizations.Introduction: Crash Course U.S. Government and Politics
Perhaps the best known of this type, as well as the largest foundation in the US, is the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The company-sponsored foundation often maintains close ties with the donor company. But it is a separate, legal organization, sometimes with its own endowment, and is subject to the same rules and regulations as other private foundations.
At least one family member must continue to serve as an officer or board member of the foundation and as the donor.The philosophy of education examines the goals, forms, methods, and meaning of education.
The term is used to describe both fundamental philosophical analysis of these themes and the description or analysis of particular pedagogical approaches. Considerations of how the profession relates to broader philosophical or sociocultural contexts may be included. For example, philosophers of education study what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices, the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline, and the relation between educational theory and practice.
In universities, the philosophy of education usually forms part of departments or colleges of education. Plato's educational philosophy was grounded in a vision of an ideal Republic wherein the individual was best served by being subordinated to a just society due to a shift in emphasis that departed from his predecessors. The mind and body were to be considered separate entities. In the dialogues of Phaedowritten in his "middle period" B.
Plato expressed his distinctive views about the nature of knowledge, reality, and the soul: . When the soul and body are united, then nature orders the soul to rule and govern, and the body to obey and serve. Now which of these two functions is akin to the divine?
Does not the divine appear…to be that which naturally orders and rules, and the mortal to be that which is subject and servant? On this premise, Plato advocated removing children from their mothers' care and raising them as wards of the statewith great care being taken to differentiate children suitable to the various castes, the highest receiving the most education, so that they could act as guardians of the city and care for the less able.
Education would be holisticincluding facts, skills, physical discipline, and music and art, which he considered the highest form of endeavor. Plato believed that talent was distributed non-genetically and thus must be found in children born in any social class.
He built on this by insisting that those suitably gifted were to be trained by the state so that they might be qualified to assume the role of a ruling class. What this established was essentially a system of selective public education premised on the assumption that an educated minority of the population were, by virtue of their education and inborn educabilitysufficient for healthy governance.
Plato's writings contain some of the following ideas: Elementary education would be confined to the guardian class till the age of 18, followed by two years of compulsory military training and then by higher education for those who qualified. While elementary education made the soul responsive to the environment, higher education helped the soul to search for truth which illuminated it. Both boys and girls receive the same kind of education. Elementary education consisted of music and gymnastics, designed to train and blend gentle and fierce qualities in the individual and create a harmonious person.
At the age of 20, a selection was made. The best students would take an advanced course in mathematicsgeometryastronomy and harmonics. The first course in the scheme of higher education would last for ten years.
It would be for those who had a flair for science. At the age of 30 there would be another selection; those who qualified would study dialectics and metaphysicslogic and philosophy for the next five years. After accepting junior positions in the army for 15 years, a man would have completed his theoretical and practical education by the age of The book explains the moral foundations on which her political career was built.
These problems threaten the very foundations of modern society. The scandal has shaken the government to its foundations. They established a foundation to help orphaned children. See More Recent Examples on the Web The Biden model is to leverage the political power without the pretense of a charitable foundation.
Send us feedback. See more words from the same century Dictionary Entries near foundation foul up foumart found foundation foundational foundationary foundation bed. Accessed 12 Oct. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for foundation foundation. A foundation must also be laid for the qualification of a witness as an expert, or for the assertion of a privilege. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.
Test Your Vocabulary Forms of Government Quiz A gerontocracy is rule by: soothsayers unwritten laws elders animals Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!
Convening on 'Counsel' and 'Council' We drop the gavel. Ask the Editors 'Intensive purposes': An Eggcorn We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt': An Eggcorn We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Or something like that. A challenging quiz of changing words. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Listen to the words and spell through all three l Login or Register.Turner was born in Portage, Wisconsin, in His father, a journalist by trade and local historian by avocation, piqued Turner's interest in history.
After his graduation from the University of Wisconsin inTurner decided to become a professional historian, and received his Ph. He served as a teacher and scholar at the University of Wisconsin from towhen he joined Harvard's faculty.
He retired in but continued his research until his death in Turner's contribution to American history was to argue that the frontier past best explained the distinctive history of the United States. He most cogently articulated this idea in "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," which he first delivered to a gathering of historians in at Chicago, then the site of the World's Columbian Exposition, an enormous fair to mark the four-hundredth anniversary of Columbus' voyage.
Although almost totally ignored at the time, Turner's lecture eventually gained such wide distribution and influence that a contemporary scholar has called it "the single most influential piece of writing in the history of American history. Three years before Turner's pronouncement of the frontier thesis, the U. Census Bureau had announced the disappearance of a contiguous frontier line. Turner took this "closing of the frontier" as an opportunity to reflect upon the influence it had exercised.
He argued that the frontier had meant that every American generation returned "to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line. This development, in Turner's description of the frontier, "begins with the Indian and the hunter; it goes on with the disintegration of savagery by the entrance of the trader For Turner, the deeper significance of the frontier lay in the effects of this social recapitulation on the American character. Turner's essay reached triumphalist heights in his belief that the promotion of individualistic democracy was the most important effect of the frontier.
Individuals, forced to rely on their own wits and strength, he believed, were simply too scornful of rank to be amenable to the exercise of centralized political power.
Turner offered his frontier thesis as both an analysis of the past and a warning about the future. If the frontier had been so essential to the development of American culture and democracy, then what would befall them as the frontier closed? It was on this forboding note that he closed his address: "And now, four centuries from the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history.
More than a century after he first delivered his frontier thesis, historians still hotly debate Turner's ideas and approach. His critics have denied everything from his basic assumptions to the small details of his argument.
The mainstream of the profession has long since discarded Turner's assumption that the frontier is the key to American history as a whole; they point instead to the critical influence of such factors as slavery and the Civil War, immigration, and the development of industrial capitalism. But even within Western and frontier history, a growing body of historians has contested Turner's approach.
Foundations of American democracy: unit review
Some have long disputed the very idea of a frontier of "free land. The numerous Indian wars provoked by American expansion belie Turner's argument that the American "free land" frontier was a sharp contrast with European nations' borders with other states. On a more analytic level, an increasing number of Western historians have found the very concept of a frontier dubious, because it applies to too many disparate places and times to be useful.
How much do Puritan New England and the California of the transcontinental railroad really have in common? Many such critics have sought to replace the idea of a moving frontier with the idea of the West as a distinctive region, much like the American South.
Where Turner told the triumphalist story of the frontier's promotion of a distinctly American democracy, many of his critics have argued that precisely the opposite was the case. Cooperation and communities of various sorts, not isolated individuals, made possible the absorption of the West into the United States.
Most migrant wagon trains, for example, were composed of extended kinship networks. Moreover, as the 19th century wore on, the role of the federal government and large corporations grew increasingly important. Corporate investors headquartered in New York laid the railroads; government troops defeated Indian nations who refused to get out of the way of manifest destiny; even the cowboys, enshrined in popular mythology as rugged loners, were generally low-level employees of sometimes foreign-owned cattle corporations.
Moreover, these revisionist scholars argue, for many places the West has not been the land of freedom and opportunity that both Turnerian history and popular mythology would have us believe. For many women, Asians, Mexicans who suddenly found themselves residents of the United States, and, of course, Indians, the West was no promised land. The more foreboding and cautionary tale which increasing numbers of Western historians have offered in place of Turner's account has provoked sharp controversy.
Western historians who still adhere roughly to Turner's approach accuse their opponents of mistaking a simple-minded political correctness for good scholarship in their quest to recount only the doom and gloom of the Western past. Often the rhetoric reaches an acrimonious crescendo.
But in a sense, the very acrimony of these debates takes us full circle back to Turner and his legacy, for debates about the significance of Western history are hardly ever confined to the past.It also absorbs or blocks harmful UV radiation and remains one of the most effective forms of protection against sun damage and skin cancer.
UPF measures the amount of UV radiation that can penetrate fabric and reach your skin. Sun Protection Factor, or SPF, is based on the time it takes for UV-exposed skin to redden; if you burn after 20 minutes, if used correctly, an SPF 15 sunscreen may protect your skin 15 times longer. Yes, your clothing shields you from the sun, but not all fabrics and colors provide equal protection. Luckily, you have plenty of options. When shopping for apparel that can effectively shield you from harmful rays, keep these factors in mind:.
Color : Dark or bright colors keep UV rays from reaching your skin by absorbing them rather than allowing them to penetrate. Construction : Densely woven cloth, like denim, canvas, wool or synthetic fibers, are more protective than sheer, thin or loosely woven cloth. If you can see through, UV radiation can easily penetrate the fabric and reach your skin. Content : The composition of your fabric really matters. Unbleached cotton contains natural lignins that act as UV absorbers.
Shiny polyesters and even lightweight satiny silks can be highly protective because they reflect radiation. High-tech fabrics treated with chemical UV absorbers or dyes prevent some penetration from UV rays. Fit : Loose-fitting apparel is preferable. Tight clothing can stretch and reduce the level of protection offered, as the fibers pull away from each other and allow more UV light to pass through.
Look for our Seal of Recommendation whenever you shop. Coverage : The more skin your outfit covers, the better your protection. Whenever possible, choose long-sleeved shirts and long pants or skirts.
Activity : Regardless of UPF, if your clothing gets stretched or wet, it will lose some of its protective ability and become more transparent, exposing your skin to more UV light. A white T-shirt provides only moderate sun protection, with a UPF of about 7.
Philosophy of education
When that T-shirt gets wet, it provides a UPF of only 3! A dark, long-sleeved denim shirt can provide a UPF of about 1,; in essence, complete sun protection.
Hats are a perfect complement to UV-filtering sunglasses and broad-spectrum sunscreen to protect your face and eyes. Look for a tightly woven hat rather than a loosely constructed straw hat that lets in the UV rays. Hats help safeguard your face, scalp and neck. Live a sun-safe life.
UPF: What it is and why it matters. What makes clothing sun safe? When shopping for apparel that can effectively shield you from harmful rays, keep these factors in mind: Color : Dark or bright colors keep UV rays from reaching your skin by absorbing them rather than allowing them to penetrate. Not all clothing protects equally A white T-shirt provides only moderate sun protection, with a UPF of about 7.
Tight Knit Look for a tightly woven hat rather than a loosely constructed straw hat that lets in the UV rays. Reviewed by: Elisabeth G. Richard, MD Last reviewed: June Healthy Lifestyle.Democracy was not created in a heartbeat. In a world where people were ruled by monarchs from above, the idea of self-government is entirely alien. Democracy takes practice and wisdom from experience. The American colonies began developing a democratic tradition during their earliest stages of development.
Over years later, the colonists believed their experience was great enough to refuse to recognize the British king. The first decade was rocky. The American Revolution and the domestic instability that followed prompted a call for a new type of government with a constitution to guarantee liberty. The constitution drafted in the early days of the independent American republic has endured longer than any in human history.
Where did this democratic tradition truly begin? The ideas and practices that led to the development of the American democratic republic owe a debt to the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome, the Protestant Reformationand Gutenberg 's printing press. But the Enlightenment of 17th-century Europe had the most immediate impact on the framers of the United States Constitution. Europeans of the 17th century no longer lived in the "darkness" of the Middle Ages.
Ocean voyages had put them in touch with many world civilizations, and trade had created a prosperous middle class. The Protestant Reformation encouraged free thinkers to question the practices of the Catholic Churchand the printing press spread the new ideas relatively quickly and easily. The time was ripe for the philosophesscholars who promoted democracy and justice through discussions of individual liberty and equality.
One of the first philosophes was Thomas Hobbesan Englishman who concluded in his famous book, Leviathanthat people are incapable of ruling themselves, primarily because humans are naturally self-centered and quarrelsome and need the iron fist of a strong leader. Later philosophes, like VoltaireMontesquieu, and Rousseau were more optimistic about democracy.
Their ideas encouraged the questioning of absolute monarchs, like the Bourbon family that ruled France. Montesquieu suggested a separation of powers into branches of government not unlike the system Americans would later adopt. They found eager students who later became the founders of the American government. The single most important influence that shaped the founding of the United States comes from John Lockea 17th century Englishman who redefined the nature of government.
Although he agreed with Hobbes regarding the self-interested nature of humans, he was much more optimistic about their ability to use reason to avoid tyranny. In his Second Treatise of GovernmentLocke identified the basis of a legitimate government. According to Locke, a ruler gains authority through the consent of the governed. The duty of that government is to protect the natural rights of the people, which Locke believed to include life, liberty, and property.